Stage 1: “manual” (until the second half of the 19th century). Already here you can see how information technology appeared. Their primary purpose is to convey information in the required format. As a toolkit – a pen with an inkwell, paper and a book. The dispatch of letters, parcels and dispatches was carried out by horse mail, and in Europe also by a mechanical telegraph.
Stage 2: “mechanical” (late 19th century – 1940s). Closer to the beginning of the twentieth century, the IT task becomes more complicated: now information must be delivered in the most practical ways, and it is also required to reduce the costs of correcting losses and deformations. A distinctive feature of the second milestone is mechanized devices, among which the telephone and typewriter stand out. The postal service is improving delivery methods.
Stage 3: “electrical” (1940s – 1960s). The third stage began in the post-war period, and it gradually began to shift the goal of IT from the format of sending information to improving its content. Computers, large and tube computers, copiers and portable dictaphones appear, and typewriters are now electric.
Stage 4: “electronic” (1970s – mid-1980s). The fourth step focuses on the organization of analysis in work and the formation of IT content for the management sphere as a whole. Important tools here are computers and automated control systems, as well as information retrieval systems with a variety of software systems. The period made it possible to gain experience in the collection of information content and prepare a solid foundation necessary for the transition to the next stage in the evolution of information technology.
The main stages of the development of information technology of our time
Stage 5: “computer” (mid-1980s – mid-1990s). The fifth milestone is characterized by the improvement of the individualization of the automated control system, support systems for decision-making in management with embedded analytical abilities and the beginnings of artificial intelligence are being created. The main equipment is a personal computer with a set of various programs. Technical devices are being transferred to a microprocessor base.
Stage 6: “network” (early 1990s). The sixth stage is currently only being established and is the last in the stages of the formation of information technology. Computer networks are beginning to be actively implemented in the field of technology, science and business, both on a global and local scale. Commerce is switching to electronic format.